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Building Websites This section covers all aspects of publishing, developing and maintaining websites. Topics include: website design, graphic design, website programming, web hosting, website marketing (SEO, link exchange, publicity, advertising), monetization & etc.

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  #1  
Old 02-24-2006, 08:00 AM
goldigger goldigger is offline
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Default HOW to Secure and Optimize your VPS

SECURING CPANEL - WHM - AND ROOT on a VPS

This will help but as mentioned in previous posts, with a VPS you do not have access to your kernal. That is good in some ways, because if you don't have access to it, neither to hackers or spammers (which limits what they can do). Its bad in ways, because you lose control and if you secure your box as much as possible, you are still at risk because you cannot control your kernal.

At any rate, here are some helpful hints

=========================================
Checking for formmail
=========================================

Form mail is used by hackers to send out spam email, by relay and injection methods. If you are using matts script or a version of it, you may be in jeopardy.


Command to find pesky form mails:
find / -name "[Ff]orm[mM]ai*"

CGIemail is also a security risk:
find / -name "[Cc]giemai*"

Command to disable form mails:
chmod a-rwx /path/to/filename
(a-rwx translates to all types, no read, write or execute permissions).

(this disables all form mail)

If a client or someone on your vps installs form mail, you will have to let them know you are disabling their script and give them an alternative.


=========================================
Root kit checker - http://www.chkrootkit.org/
=========================================

Check for root kits and even set a root kit on a cron job. This will show you if anyone has compromised your root. Always update chrootkit to get the latest root kit checker. Hackers and spammers will try to find insecure upload forms on your box and then with injection methods, try to upload the root kit on your server. If he can run it, it will modify *alot* of files, possibly causing you to have to reinstall.


To install chrootkit, SSH into server and login as root.
At command prompt type:

cd /root/
wget ftp://ftp.pangeia.com.br/pub/seg/pac/chkrootkit.tar.gz
tar xvzf chkrootkit.tar.gz
cd chkrootkit-0.44
make sense


To run chkrootkit

At command prompt type:
/root/chkrootkit-0.44/chkrootkit

Make sure you run it on a regular basis, perhaps including it in a cron job.

Execution

I use these three commands the most.
./chkrootkit
./chkrootkit -q
./chkrootkit -x | more


=========================================
Install a root breach DETECTOR and EMAIL WARNING
=========================================

If someone does happen to get root, be warned quickly by installing a detector and warning at your box. You will at least get the hackers/spammers ip address and be warned someone is in there.


Server e-mail everytime someone logs in as root

To have the server e-mail you everytime someone logs in as root, SSH into server and login as root.


At command prompt type:
pico .bash_profile

Scroll down to the end of the file and add the following line:

echo 'ALERT - Root Shell Access on:' `date` `who` | mail -s "Alert: Root Access from `who | awk '{print $6}'`" your@email.com

Save and exit.


Set an SSH Legal Message

To an SSH legal message, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type:
pico /etc/motd

Enter your message, save and exit.
Note: I use the following message...

ALERT! You are entering a secured area! Your IP and login information
have been recorded. System administration has been notified.
This system is restricted to authorized access only. All activities on
this system are recorded and logged. Unauthorized access will be fully
investigated and reported to the appropriate law enforcement agencies.



=========================================
Web Host manager and CPANEL mods.
=========================================

These are items inside of WHM/Cpanel that should be changed to secure your server.

Goto Server Setup =>> Tweak Settings
Check the following items...

Under Domains
Prevent users from parking/adding on common internet domains. (ie hotmail.com, aol.com)

Under Mail
Attempt to prevent pop3 connection floods
Default catch-all/default address behavior for new accounts - blackhole
(according to ELIX - set this to FAIL, which is what I am going to do to reduce server load)

Under System
Use jailshell as the default shell for all new accounts and modified accounts

Goto Server Setup =>> Tweak Security
Enable php open_basedir Protection
Enable mod_userdir Protection
Disabled Compilers for unprivileged users.

Goto Server Setup =>> Manage Wheel Group Users
Remove all users except for root and your main account from the wheel group.

Goto Server Setup =>> Shell Fork Bomb Protection
Enable Shell Fork Bomb/Memory Protection

When setting up Feature Limits for resellers in Resellers =>> Reseller Center, under Privileges always disable Allow Creation of Packages with Shell Access and enable Never allow creation of accounts with shell access; under Root Access disable All Features.

Goto Service Configuration =>> FTP Configuration
Disable Anonymous FTP

Goto Account Functions =>> Manage Shell Access
Disable Shell Access for all users (except yourself)

Goto Mysql =>> MySQL Root Password
Change root password for MySQL

Goto Security and run Quick Security Scan and Scan for Trojan Horses often. The following and similar items are not Trojans:
/sbin/depmod
/sbin/insmod
/sbin/insmod.static
/sbin/modinfo
/sbin/modprobe
/sbin/rmmod

=========================================
More Security Measures
=========================================

These are measures that can be taken to secure your server, with SSH access.

Update OS, Apache and CPanel to the latest stable versions.
This can be done from WHM/CPanel.


Restrict SSH Access
To restrict and secure SSH access, bind sshd to a single IP that is different than the main IP to the server, and on a different port than port 22.

SSH into server and login as root.
Note: You can download Putty by Clicking Here (http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~s.../download.html). It's a clean running application that will not require installation on Windows-boxes.

At command prompt type:
pico /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Scroll down to the section of the file that looks like this:
#Port 22
#Protocol 2, 1
#ListenAddress 0.0.0.0
#ListenAddress ::

Uncomment and change
#Port 22
to look like
Port 5678 (choose your own 4 to 5 digit port number (49151 is the highest port number AND do not use 5678 lol )

Uncomment and change
#Protocol 2, 1
to look like
Protocol 2

Uncomment and change
#ListenAddress 0.0.0.0
to look like
ListenAddress 123.123.123.15 (use one of your own IP Addresses that has been assigned to your server)

Note 1: If you would like to disable direct Root Login, scroll down until you find
#PermitRootLogin yes
and uncomment it and make it look like
PermitRootLogin no

Save by pressing Ctrl o on your keyboard, and then exit by pressing Ctrl x on your keyboard.


Note 2: You can also create a custome nameserver specifically for your new SSH IP address. Just create one called something like ssh.xyz.com or whatever. Be sure to add an A address to your zone file for the new nameserver.

Now restart SSH
At command prompt type:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd restart

Exit out of SSH, and then re-login to SSH using the new IP or nameserver, and the new port.

Note: If you should have any problems, just Telnet into your server, fix the problem, then SSH in again. Telnet is a very unsecure protocol, so change your root password after you use it.

After SSH has been redirected, disable telnet.

Disable Telnet
To disable telnet, SSH into server and login as root.
At command prompt type: pico -w /etc/xinetd.d/telnet
change disable = no to disable = yes
Save and Exit
At command prompt type: /etc/init.d/xinetd restart


Disable Shell Accounts
To disable any shell accounts hosted on your server SSH into server and login as root.
At command prompt type: locate shell.php
Also check for:
locate irc
locate eggdrop
locate bnc
locate BNC
locate ptlink
locate BitchX
locate guardservices
locate psyBNC
locate .rhosts

Note: There will be several listings that will be OS/CPanel related. Examples are
/home/cpapachebuild/buildapache/php-4.3.1/ext/ircg
/usr/local/cpanel/etc/sym/eggdrop.sym
/usr/local/cpanel/etc/sym/bnc.sym
/usr/local/cpanel/etc/sym/psyBNC.sym
/usr/local/cpanel/etc/sym/ptlink.sym
/usr/lib/libncurses.so
/usr/lib/libncurses.a
etc.


Disable identification output for Apache

(do this to hide version numbers from potentional hackers)

To disable the version output for proftp, SSH into server and login as root.
At command prompt type: pico /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Scroll (way) down and change the following line to
ServerSignature Off

Restart Apache
At command prompt type: /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart
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  #2  
Old 02-24-2006, 08:10 AM
goldigger goldigger is offline
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Posts: 10
Default

=========================================
Install BFD (Brute Force Detection - optional)
=========================================

To install BFD, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type:
cd /root/
wget http://www.rfxnetworks.com/downloads/bfd-current.tar.gz
tar -xvzf bfd-current.tar.gz
cd bfd-0.4
./install.sh

After BFD has been installed, you need to edit the configuration file.

At command prompt type:
pico /usr/local/bfd/conf.bfd

Under Enable brute force hack attempt alerts:
Find
ALERT_USR="0"
and change it to
ALERT_USR="1"

Find
EMAIL_USR="root"
and change it to
EMAIL_USR="your@email.com"

Save the changes then exit.

To start BFD

At command prompt type:
/usr/local/sbin/bfd -s


Modify LogWatch
Logwatch is a customizable log analysis system. It parses through your system's logs for a given period of time and creates a report analyzing areas that you specify, in as much detail as you require. Logwatch is already installed on most CPanel servers.

To modify LogWatch, SSH into server and login as root.

At command prompt type:
pico -w /etc/log.d/conf/logwatch.conf

Scroll down to
MailTo = root
and change to
Mailto = your@email.com
Note: Set the e-mail address to an offsite account incase you get hacked.

Now scroll down to
Detail = Low
Change that to Medium, or High...
Detail = 5 or Detail = 10
Note: High will give you more detailed logs with all actions.

Save and exit.

A number of suggestions to improve system security. Some of this is specific to CPanel, but much can be applied to most Linux systems.
--------------------------------------------------
Use The Latest Software
Keep the OS and 3rd party software up to date. Always!
CPanel itself can be updated from the root WHM.
--------------------------------------------------
Change Passwords
Change the root passwords at least once a month and try to make them hard to guess. Yes it's a pain to have to keep remembering them, but it's better than being hacked.

--------------------------------------------------
Set Up A More Secure SSH Environment As described here.
--------------------------------------------------
Disable Telnet
1. Type: pico -w /etc/xinetd.d/telnet
2. Change the disable = no line to disable = yes.
3. Hit CTRL+X press y and then enter to save the file.
4. Restart xinted with: /etc/rc.d/init.d/xinetd restart
Also, add the following line to /etc/deny.hosts to flag Telnet access attempts as 'emergency' messages.

in.telnetd : ALL : severity emerg

--------------------------------------------------
Disable Unnecessary Ports (optional)
First backup the file that contains your list of ports with:
cp /etc/services /etc/services.original
Now configure /etc/services so that it only has the ports you need in it. This will match the ports enabled in your firewall.
On a typical CPanel system it would look something like this:
<?php
tcpmux 1/tcp # TCP port service multiplexer
echo 7/tcp
echo 7/udp
ftp-data 20/tcp
ftp 21/tcp
ssh 22/tcp # SSH Remote Login Protocol
smtp 25/tcp mail
domain 53/tcp # name-domain server
domain 53/udp
http 80/tcp www www-http # WorldWideWeb HTTP
pop3 110/tcp pop-3 # POP version 3
imap 143/tcp imap2 # Interim Mail Access Proto v2
https 443/tcp # MCom
smtps 465/tcp # SMTP over SSL (TLS)
syslog 514/udp
rndc 953/tcp # rndc control sockets (BIND 9)
rndc 953/udp # rndc control sockets (BIND 9)
imaps 993/tcp # IMAP over SSL
pop3s 995/tcp # POP-3 over SSL
cpanel 2082/tcp
cpanels 2083/tcp
whm 2086/tcp
whms 2087/tcp
webmail 2095/tcp
webmails 2096/tcp
mysql 3306/tcp # MySQL
?>
Additional ports are controlled by /etc/rpc. These aren't generally needed, so get shot of that file with: mv /etc/rpc /etc/rpc-moved
--------------------------------------------------
Watch The Logs
Install something like logwatch to keep an eye on your system logs. This will extract anything 'interesting' from the logs and e-mail to you on a daily basis.
Logwatch can be found at: http://www.logwatch.org
Install instructions here.
--------------------------------------------------
Avoid CPanel Demo Mode
Switch it off via WHM Account Functions => Disable or Enable Demo Mode.
--------------------------------------------------
Jail All Users
Via WHM Account Functions => Manage Shell Access => Jail All Users.
Better still never allow shell access to anyone - no exceptions.
--------------------------------------------------
Immediate Notification Of Specific Attackers
If you need immediate notification of a specific attacker (TCPWrapped services only), add the following to /etc/hosts.deny

ALL : nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn : spawn /bin/ 'date' %c %d | mail -s"Access attempt by nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn on for hostname" notify@mydomain.com
Replacing nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn with the attacker's IP address.
Replacing hostname with your hostname.
Replacing notify@mydomain.com with your e-mail address.
This will deny access to the attacker and e-mail the sysadmin about the access attempt.
--------------------------------------------------
Check Open Ports
From time to time it's worth checking which ports are open to the outside world. This can be done with:
nmap -sT -O localhost
If nmap isn't installed, it can be selected from root WHM's Install an RPM option.
--------------------------------------------------
Set The MySQL Root Password
This can be done in CPanel from the root WHM Server Setup -> Set MySQL Root Password.
Make it different to your root password!
--------------------------------------------------
Tweak Security (CPanel)
From the root WHM, Server Setup -> Tweak Security, you will most likely want to enable:
- php open_basedir Tweak.
- SMTP tweak.
You may want to enable:
- mod_userdir Tweak. But that will disable domain preview.
--------------------------------------------------
Use SuExec (CPanel)
From root WHM, Server Setup -> Enable/Disable SuExec. This is CPanel's decription of what it does:
"suexec allows cgi scripts to run with the user's id. It will also make it easier to track which user has sent out an email. If suexec is not enabled, all cgi scripts will run as nobody. "
Even if you don't use phpsuexec (which often causes more problems), SuExec should be considered.
--------------------------------------------------
Use PHPSuExec (CPanel)
This needs to built into Apache (Software -> Update Apache from the root WHM) and does the same as SuExec but for PHP scripts.
Wisth PHPSuExec enabled, you users will have to make sure that all their PHP files have permissions no greater than 0755 and that their htaccess files contain no PHP directives.
--------------------------------------------------
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  #3  
Old 02-24-2006, 08:12 AM
goldigger goldigger is offline
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Posts: 10
Default

Disable Compilers
This will prevent hackers from compiling worms, root kits and the like on your machine.
To disable them, do the following:

chmod 000 /usr/bin/perlcc
chmod 000 /usr/bin/byacc
chmod 000 /usr/bin/yacc
chmod 000 /usr/bin/bcc
chmod 000 /usr/bin/kgcc
chmod 000 /usr/bin/cc
chmod 000 /usr/bin/gcc
chmod 000 /usr/bin/i386*cc
chmod 000 /usr/bin/*c++
chmod 000 /usr/bin/*g++
chmod 000 /usr/lib/bcc /usr/lib/bcc/bcc-cc1
chmod 000 /usr/i386-glibc21-linux/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/cc1

You will need to enable them again when you need to perform system updates. To do this, run:

chmod 755 /usr/bin/perlcc
chmod 755 /usr/bin/byacc
chmod 755 /usr/bin/yacc
chmod 755 /usr/bin/bcc
chmod 755 /usr/bin/kgcc
chmod 755 /usr/bin/cc
chmod 755 /usr/bin/gcc
chmod 755 /usr/bin/i386*cc
chmod 755 /usr/bin/*c++
chmod 755 /usr/bin/*g++
chmod 755 /usr/lib/bcc /usr/lib/bcc/bcc-cc1
chmod 755 /usr/i386-glibc21-linux/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96/cc1

--------------------------------------------------
Obfuscate The Apache Version Number
1. Type: pico /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
2. Change the line that begins ServerSignature to:

ServerSignature Off

3. Add a line underneath that which reads:

ServerTokens ProductOnly

4. Hit CTRL+X, they y, the enter to save the file.
5. Restart Apache with: /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart
--------------------

COMMON COMMANDS I USE
System Information
who
List the users logged in on the machine. --

rwho -a
List all users logged in on your network. The rwho service must be enabled for this command to work.

finger user_name
System info about a user. Try: finger root last. This lists the users last logged-in on your system.

history | more
Show the last (1000 or so) commands executed from the command line on the current account. The | more causes the display to stop after each screen fill.

pwd
Print working directory, i.e. display the name of your current directory on the screen.

hostname
Print the name of the local host (the machine on which you are working).

whoami
Print your login name.

id username
Print user id (uid) and his/her group id (gid), effective id (if different than the real id) and the supplementary groups.

date
Print or change the operating system date and time. E.g., change the date and time to 2000-12-31 23:57 using this command

date 123123572000
To set the hardware clock from the system clock, use the command (as root)
setclock

time
Determine the amount of time that it takes for a process to complete+ other info. Don’t confuse it with date command. For e.g. we can find out how long it takes to display a directory content using time ls

uptime
Amount of time since the last reboot

ps
List the processes that are have been run by the current user.

ps aux | more
List all the processes currently running, even those without the controlling terminal, together with the name of the user that owns each process.

top
Keep listing the currently running processes, sorted by cpu usage (top users first).

uname -a
Info on your server.

free
Memory info (in kilobytes).

df -h
Print disk info about all the file systems in a human-readable form.

du / -bh | more
Print detailed disk usage for each subdirectory starting at root (in a human readable form).

lsmod
(as root. Use /sbin/lsmod to execute this command when you are a non-root user.) Show the kernel modules currently loaded.

set|more
Show the current user environment.

echo $PATH
Show the content of the environment variable PATH. This command can be used to show other environment variables as well. Use set to see the full environment.

dmesg | less
Print kernel messages (the current content of the so-called kernel ring buffer). Press q to quit less. Use less /var/log/dmesg to see what dmesg dumped into the file right after bootup. - only works on dedciated systems

Commands for Process control
ps
Display the list of currently running processes with their process IDs (PID) numbers. Use ps aux to see all processes currently running on your system (also those of other users or without a controlling terminal),
each with the name of the owner. Use top to keep listing the processes currently running.

fg
PID Bring a background or stopped process to the foreground.

bg
PID Send the process to the background. This is the opposite of fg. The same can be accomplished with Ctrl z

any_command &
Run any command in the background (the symbol ‘&’ means run the command in the background?).

kill PID
Force a process shutdown. First determine the PID of the process to kill using ps.

killall -9 program_name
Kill program(s) by name.

xkill
(in an xwindow terminal) Kill a GUI-based program with mouse. (Point with your mouse cursor at the window of the process you want to kill and click.)

lpc
(as root) Check and control the printer(s). Type ??? to see the list of available commands.

lpq
Show the content of the printer queue.

lprm job_number
Remove a printing job job_number from the queue.

nice program_name
Run program_name adjusting its priority. Since the priority is not specified in this example, it will be adjusted by 10 (the process will run slower), from the default value (usually 0). The lower the number (of niceness to other users on the system), the higher the priority. The priority value may be in the range -20 to 19. Only root may specify negative values. Use top to display the priorities of the running processes.

renice -1 PID
(as root) Change the priority of a running process to -1. Normal users can only adjust processes they own, and only up from the current value (make them run slower).


Optimizing your VPS server (help it run more efficiently)
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  #4  
Old 03-07-2006, 07:27 PM
James72 James72 is offline
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Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 29
Default

Wow.. great tutorial.
Very advanced but it will come in very, very handy when I do eventually set up a VPS.

Thanks!
________
TZ125

Last edited by James72; 01-21-2011 at 09:33 PM.
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  #5  
Old 03-09-2006, 06:02 PM
Jarritos Jarritos is offline
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Posts: 20
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Great job...that helped me a lot. I just did a lot of that stuff did not relies I had so many holes lol
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  #6  
Old 03-09-2006, 07:35 PM
jkca jkca is offline
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Nice list, have not seen everything compiled into one list like that, also might want to add in the program listps to check for hidden processes and manually add in mac addresses to avoid programs like dsniff hijacking your ssh.
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  #7  
Old 03-09-2006, 11:22 PM
Rogue Rogue is offline
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Posts: 25
Default

This is a great tutorial! It seems a bit long and advanced, so I'll have to ask a friend to help me out ... but it seems like it's got everything I need.

Thanks! Keep sharing the wealth!
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  #8  
Old 03-12-2006, 04:40 AM
Julian Julian is offline
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Goldigger, this is very long and a little out of my league but keep posting them man.
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  #9  
Old 03-18-2006, 03:37 PM
cyberhostuk cyberhostuk is offline
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Thanks a lot for the tutorial Good post!
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  #10  
Old 02-29-2008, 04:33 PM
timeassasin timeassasin is offline
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I've been researching for this coding for a long time. Thank you so much for sharing!
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